What is Artery
A vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to distant parts of the body. Since the blood in the arteries is usually saturated with oxygen, the hemoglobin in the red blood cells is absorbed by the oxygen. A type of artery derived from hemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin) that turns blood red. The veins are part of the right segment of the circulatory system.
The nerve, on the other hand, is a blood vessel that carries small amounts of oxygen from the body back to the heart. Deoxyhemoglobin, a type of hemoglobin in venous blood, darkens it. Arteries are part of the parallel section of the circulatory system that returns blood to the heart.
The largest artery is the aorta that forms in the left ventricle of the heart. Aortic pigeons briefly above before descending continuously near the spine; The arteries that supply blood to the head, neck and arms come out of this curve and travel upwards. When descending into the spine, the aorta elevates the other large arteries that supply the internal organs of the chest. After the abdomen expands, the aorta divides into two terminal branches, each supplying blood to one leg.
Each artery is a soft-tissue muscular tube and consists of three layers:
- Intima; the inner layer is lined with soft tissues called endothelium
- The media; a muscle layer that allows the arteries to handle excess pressure from the heart
- Adventitia; connective tissue that connects nerves to nearby tissues
Conditions of the Arteries
Atherosclerosis: Increased synthesis of cholesterol (waxy substance) in the walls of the arteries. Psoriasis of the coronary arteries, brain or neck can cause heart attack and stroke.
- Vasculitis: Inflammation of the arteries that cover one or more arteries at once. Most vasculitis is caused due to excessive size of the body.
- Amurosis fugax: Loss of vision in one eye is caused by temporary loss of blood flow to the retina, which is a soft soft tissue behind the eye. This occurs when a portion of the cholesterol layer, one of the carotid arteries ruptures and travels to the retinal artery.
- Vascular stenosis: contraction of the arteries, usually caused by atherosclerosis. When stenosis occurs in the arteries in the heart, neck or legs, defects in the blood flow can lead to serious health problems.
- Peripheral artery disease: Atherosclerosis, which causes narrowing of the arteries in the legs or hips. Pain or worsening of the wound heals as blood flow to the legs decreases.
- Arterial thrombosis: Sudden blood clot in one of the arteries, blocking blood flow. Immediate treatment is needed to restore blood flow to the arteries.
- Heart attack: A sudden blood clot in one of the arteries that supply blood to the heart.
- Vascular accident (stroke): Sudden blood clot in one of the arteries that supply blood to the brain. Stroke can occur when one of the arteries in the brain ruptures and bleeds.
- Coronary artery disease: atherosclerosis and narrowing of the arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle. Coronary artery disease causes heart attack.
Tests of arteries
Angiogram (angiography): A thin, flexible tube is inserted into the arteries, special dye is applied, and an X-ray shows blood flow through the arteries. Areas of constriction or bleeding in the arteries can often be identified by angiography.
Computed tomographic angiography (CT-A scan): A CD scanner takes multiple X-rays and a computer compiles them into detailed images of the arteries. A CT-A scan can often show narrowing of the arteries or other problems with less risk than regular angiography.
Stress test: With exercise or medication, the heart is stimulated to beat faster. As this pressure increases blood flow through the heart, contractions in the coronary arteries can be identified by various test techniques.
Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA scan): MRI scanner uses a powerful magnet and computer to create very detailed images of the structures inside the body. MRI is a system that allows an MRI scanner to better display images of arteries.
Cardiac catheterization: A catheter (a thin, flexible tube) inserted into the arteries in the pelvis, neck or arm and advanced to the heart. The dye that enhances image contrast is injected through the catheter so that blood flow through the coronary arteries is visible on the X-ray screen. Blockages in the arteries can then be detected and treated.
Arterial biopsy: A small piece of artery is removed and examined under a microscope, usually to diagnose vasculitis. The temporal artery in the scalp is often biopsied.
Treatments for arteries problems
Statins: Cholesterol-lowering drugs such as atorvastatin (Lipitor), flu vastatin (Lescol), lovastatin (Aldobrev, Mevacore), pidovastatin (Livalo), Provo statin (pravacol), rosuvastatin (Crostad) and daily.
Aspirin: In addition to its pain-reducing and anti-fever properties, aspirin interferes with blood clotting. Taking aspirin daily can help prevent heart attack and stroke.
Plavix (Clopidogrel): A drug that interferes with blood clotting, such as aspirin. Flavin is usually recommended to prevent it from occurring in the future after a heart attack or stroke.
Arterial stenting: A stent – a small mesh tube – is placed inside an artery. Stenting is often done in the coronary arteries.
Angioplasty: During the catheterization of one of the arteries, a balloon is inflated inside the artery to open it.
Corticosteroids: Anti-inflammatory drugs such as prednisone or methyl prednisolone (solumedrol) are used to treat vasculitis that affects the arteries.
Biology: A biological drug called tocilizumab (Octemra) may be used. Tocilizumab is injected under the skin. This drug can be used in combination with steroids.
Thrombolytics: Powerful “anticoagulant” drugs can be injected into the body to dissolve a blood clot that causes a heart attack or stroke.
Cilostazol and pentoxifylline: Drugs that help increase blood flow through the arteries of the legs. For people with peripheral artery disease, these medications can reduce the pain of walking.
The veins come in different sizes. The main artery in the body is the aorta that starts in the heart. As they progress from the heart, the arteries become narrower and narrower.
The small arteries are called arteries. The arteries connect with the capillaries, which are very small blood vessels and are the places where oxygen, nutrients and waste exchange take place between the blood and the body cells. After this change, the blood enters the venous system, where it returns to the heart.
Major arteries of the body
The aorta is the largest artery in the body. The aorta starts above the left ventricle, to pump the heart chamber muscles. The heart pumps blood from the left ventricle to the aorta through the aortic valve. The three arteries in the aortic valve open and close with each heartbeat, allowing a single blood flow.
The aorta is divided into four parts:
- The ascending aorta rises from the heart and is 2 inches long. The coronary arteries diverge from the ascending aorta to supply the heart and blood.
- The aortic arch forms the upper circles of the heart, the branches that carry blood to the head, neck and arms.
- The aorta of the descending spines descends through the chest. Its small branches supply blood to the ribs and many thoracic systems.
- The abdominal aorta begins in the diaphragm and divides into iliac arteries connected to the abdomen. Many vital organs receive blood from the branches of the abdominal aorta.
In this article we will look at the anatomy of the aorta – its anatomy, branches and medical relationships.
- Ascending Aorta; The ascending aorta exits the aorta from the left ventricle and rises into the aorta. It is 2 inches long and travels to the pericardial sheath with the lung stem.
- Branches; The left and right aortic sinuses are extensions of the ascending aorta located at the level of the aortic valve. They supply the left and right coronary arteries that supply the heart.
- Aortic arch; The aorta is a continuation of the ascending aorta and begins at the level of the second stern costal joint. Climb up, back and left before moving down.
The aortic arch T4 ends at the level of the spine. The bow is still attached to the pulmonary trunk and ligament arteriosus (remnants of the fetal ductus arteriosus).
Three main branches arise from the aortic arch
Brachiocephalic trunk: The first and largest branch that develops later is divided into normal carotid arteries and right subclavian arteries. These veins extend to the right side of the head and neck and to the upper right leg.
- Left normal carotid artery: Provides the left side of the head and neck.
Left subclavian artery: Distributes upper left leg.
Thoracic aorta; The thoracic aorta extends from T4 to T12. The aorta continues from the arch, initially starting on the left side of the spinal column, but approaching the center as it descends. It leaves the chest through the gap of the aorta in the diaphragm and becomes the abdominal aorta.
In descending order:
Bronchial arteries: Lateral lateral visceral branches supply to the trachea and peripheral tissues and visceral flora. However, in general, only the coronary left tracheal artery arises directly from the aorta, while the right arteries usually exit from the third posterior artery.
- Mediastinal arteries: The small arteries that supply lymph nodes and free field tissue to the posterior mediastinum.
- Esophageal arteries: Unmeasured visceral branches appearing in front of the esophagus.
- Pericardial arteries: The small, irregular arteries extend forward to distribute the spinal portion of the pericardium.
In the upper pharyngeal arteries: the branches of the pair that supply the best part of the diaphragm.
Abdominal aorta; The abdominal aorta is a continuation of the thoracic aorta starting at the level of the T12 spine. It is approximately 13 cm long and ends at the level of the L4 spine. At this rate, the aorta ends with a twist in the normal right and left arteries that supply the lower right body.